Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Economical And Environmental Factors Affecting The Travel And Tourism Tourism Essay Review and plan-making is a continuous process, and stakeholders are consulted and involved that this needs to be reflected in the way. Constructive dialogues with key players in the tourism sector should develop by plan-making bodies, and build partnerships with those who have a role in delivery of tourism programmes and schemes. Tesco is currently one of the leading supermarket in the UK. With their even growing success with their business, they are planning to expand an organisation into new markets. They are specially interest to enter the travel and tourism industry. I am recruited by Tesco as a member of their marketing team. This is a report for the company which is drawn from the market research and demonstrated a clear understanding on the social, economical and environmental factors affecting the travel and tourism industry. UK have impressive diversity and variety. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland all of the countries have its own unique personality for things to do and place to see. From the rolling hills of the Cotswolds and bustling city, like of Manchester to the chearms of sleepy Cornish village and dramatic coastal, splendour of the north east. UK tourism industry is much popular and well organised. Lots of employee works in this industry. From all over the world tourist, visitors come to UK to see its beauty and attractions. Border and immigration law is easy for short stay tourist and traveller. UK have lots of place to expend money for enjoy and UK always welcome people to visit there country. Thomas cook, Thomson are the bigger tour operator in UK. They can arrange a whole package for tourist or individual what tourist want. Tour operator provide travel ticket, hotel booking, tour guide, transport, food etc. UK is rich in natural history, stunning scenery and award-winning historical sites with attractions for all age groups and interests. It is easy to fined a hotel or accommodation in the UK. Whatever a tourist destination or budget theres a limitless range of quality hotels, BBs and other accommodation to choose from. UK have over 37000 places to stay in their accommodation directory British largest hotel listing. UK compare all the leading airline for the best scheduled charter and low-cost flights to UK. Air is not only way onto this island however, UK have also got all the information on high-speed rail likes from Europe, as well as Ferry routes to and from various destinations. Whether tourists are travelling on foot , by car, bus, taxi or train, in fact whatever type of transport tourist are using UK transport and help tourist find their way easily from city to city, airport to station or restaurant to hotel, as well as providing tourist about essential information on hoe to use these services in UK. The tourism industry is an important sector of the UK economy. Over 25.5 million visitors come to the UK in 1999 and estimates suggest that tourism expenditure was around Ã £61 billion and total employment in tourism in tourism-related industries was nearly 1.8 million people. Tourism industry include employment in the following sectors: Hotel and other tourist accommodation, Restaurants and cafes ect Bars, public houses and night-clubs, Travel agencies and tour operators, Libraries, museums and other cultural activates, Sports and other recreation activity. Tourist can buy their product in several way like internet, telephone, email, fax ect. Tourism industries have their own website and they provide full package or individual product for customer. They put all detail about their product and easy to buy online. Tourist can call tourism industry about any specific product or services and pay over phone as well. Page-2 The association of British Travel Agent: The association of British Travel Agent(ABTA) is a non-party political organisation which represents the interests of its members to government and key opinion formers. In the UK these include Government ministers, Mps, members of the Opposition parties, select committees and senior civil servants. In Europe they have close ties with members of the European Parliament, the European commission, and staff within the directorate generals. As well as working to make sure that governments are sensitive to the needs of the travel industry, they work with other leading travel industry organisations and maintain strong links with representatives of the main travel destinations and with other travel principals and suppliers. Many of these belong to their travel industry partner scheme. ABTAs policies and views are actively promoted to international, national and tread media. English tourism council : Its prime role will be to provide strategic leadership to drive delivery of the national tourism strategy. It will have a parallel function as a centre of excellence supporting the industry in five key areas. Role of legislation : Anyone involved in the recruitment and selection of staff for the tourism industry should be aware of their responsibility under the relevant UK legislation which are; Direct discrimination Indirect discrimination Victimisation Gender reassignment Sexual orientation Health and safety Data protection act ect. In the UK several Acts of parliament lay down the responsibilities of the seller to the buyer. The customer protection legislations are as follows; The right to the seller to sell Description Selling by sample Satisfactory quality ect. The key environmental legislations are as follows; EU regulation on ozone depleting substances Waste electrical and electronic equipment regulation Waste electrical. Page-3 Recent developments in environmentalism and the role of environmental organisations Key historical development of travel and tourism: In the wider context, the sixteenth century Elizabeth mansion become a social and cultural centre, and early origin of visiting friends and relatives are easily identified in the period. From the seventeenth century, a form of tourism known as polite visiting emerges. Tourism based on social and cultural experience and education for young aristocrats became particularly prominent during the eighteenth century. Moreover the desire for people to travel continued to grow after the elapse of the grand tour and over the years major events took place within the evolution of tourism. The organisational structure of the industry: Tourism board of directors was established under the tourism Act 1979. The top level members are chairman, deputy chairman, managing director, chief executive, and directors. Working with senior management, the board of directors is responsible for tourism overall performance. It approves goals and directions, strategic plan and performance target. The board of directors ensures appropriate policies, procedures and systems are in place to optimise performance, maintain high standards of ethical behaviour and provide leadership to tourism industry. ABTA: ABTA members themselves form the policy-making and enforcement machinery of ABTA. The board of directors , council of regions, regional representatives and a number of committees and working groups are supported in their work by a professional secretariat of some 60 staff. The primary aims of the code of conduct are to ensure that the public receive the best possible service from members, and to maintain and enhance the reputation , good name and standard of ABTA and its members. Advertising in brochures is dealt with by ABTAs Standards on Brochures Booking Conditions which contain the minimum levels of information that travel agent should include to ensure that their clients can confidently choose the travel arrangements that are right for them. Transport: Airport in airport ownership in UK the British airports authority (BAA) is the major organisation. BAA leading London Heathrow, Gatwick, Standsted, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, south Hampton. Also has management contract stakes in the other airport outside the UK, plus retail management contract at two airport in the USA. Airline British airline is one of the most famous and largest airline and 2nd largest airline in the world. It have four different type of cabin service ranging from economy to club world. Also there have lots of low cost airline which fly international rote. Like Ryan air , easy jet etc. Page-4 Ferry travel it is very traditional transport. From Dover in UK to France ferry travel is most popular. Before English channel every one thought that ferry will loss 50% of passenger but it was not happened. As a low cost transport ferry in famous in the world. The cruise market it is one of the most famous travel in the world for enjoyment. Most of the oldest tourist interest to travel in cruise. But now a days youth and couples have lots of fun and enjoyment in cruise. Road travel in UK travel by car is most popular for day travel or domestic holiday. The hire car is growth as well. people chose car when they are in abroad. Rail travel national rail own and operate the national rail network in UK. Rail is very relax journey for traveller and rail goes international rote as well like Euro star, Euro rail etc. Tourism services: Tour operator Tour operator put the role together from different part and make a holiday and sell them as packages to the customer. They contract with hotels, airlines and other transport companies for make a package tougher. There are three type of tour operator which are: Outbound, Inbound, and Domestic tour. Travel agent Travel agent giving advice or information and sell and administer booking for a number of tour operator. They also sell flights, ferry ticket booking, car hire, insurance, accommodation as separate product. Thus they are distribute of products. Attraction Attraction appeal to the domestic tourism market and inbound tourism market. Attraction has two types natural and manmade. Natural like forest, beaches, lakes, land scape, hills etc. Man made attractions are super structure, national park, museum, zoo, gallery etc. Accommodation There are many type of accommodation available in travel and tourism industry like Hotel Guest accommodation Holiday Park and campsites Self catering Youth hostel Campus Key environmental organisation: EIB:- The EIBs activity in the environmental field is extensive with staff involvement to match, in particular operational staff working on the environmental assessment of project. Environmental protection and improvement are among the EIBs key leading objectives. The EIBs environmental work is therefore increasingly varied and complex. ABP:- ABP works closely regularly with ABP marine environmental research (ABPmer), a subsidiary consultancy company with over 50 years experience of providing specialist consultancy services on coastal, estuarine and riverine developments and conservation project. Page-5 The demand and provision for tourism New development in transport and access and effect on travel and tourism in various way. World is become change. New technology coming in market and customer demand is become rise as well. In travel and tourism tourist want more relax and easy product. In transport there have a lots of change like travel by train in Europe is more quicker then before. As an example before London to Paris by train was 4 hour journey now it is 2.30 hour . Tourist want something more to see or always want something new. There have lots of new destination and tourist attraction built in Europe and America. For example Barcelona, Montserrat, the Costa Brava, Lake Garda, Venice Verona, Krakow etc. Harry porter theme park on course to open in Florida, Italy to open up renaissance canals. Tourist want their tour easy. So when they want to go for tour, they can make their decision in short time an booking there ticket for air or hotel on spot. Japan use their oyster in their mobile phone. So they do not use card. They touch their mobile as a oyster. Mobile broadband is avail able in all over the world. Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest , so that greater numbers of people could being to enjoy the benefits of leisure time. World change rapidly and new technology change our life everyday. People always want something new and easy. On the other hand credit crunch quickly change tourism industry. Tourist who normally book 5 star hotel they interested to book 3 star hotel in this situation. Tourist tried to use public bus and travel in cheaper flight in the term of credit crunch. On the other hand people expectation become change. Tourist now want to travel in short time to get more time to visit other place. They want their all expectation in same place. In UK some of the shopping complex established for tourist attraction, where tourist can buy all their need in same place. Not only in shopping also in artificial sea beach, where tourist can get natural felling in all the year. Different age of people travel for different reason or for specie reason people can travel. Young age people mostly travel for adventure or activity like game or special event. Some of them travel for visiting their friend and relatives. But this type of travel tourist also try to fined attraction. Study tour is another popular tourism. Student mostly travel for specie place or attraction which is related with their study and can learn something from this travel. Religion reason is also a travel, like and example Muslim community travel in Saudi Arabia in a specie day to celebrate their hajj. From all over the world lots of Muslims come every year. Same as Hindu religion. India is bigger Hindu community in the world. So from all over the world people who are Hindu goes to India to celebrate their ceremony. SPA tourism is popular for those tourist who have some problem in health. Also people travel for treatment in different country. At the end of treatment people visit some of the pl ace as a tourist. Page-6 The role of government and the political and economical environment Political Environment in International Business: Political environment has a very important impact on every business or organisation where they operation, no matter what its size or its area of operation. Whether the company is in local area, regional area or national, large or small, political factors of the country will have an impact on it. And the most crucial and unavoidable realities of international business are that both host and home governments are integral partners. Show something in its policies and attitudes about business are a governments idea of how best to promote the national interest, political philosophy and considering its own resources. Encouraging and offering support or by discouraging and banning or restricting its activities depending on the government controls and restricts a companys. . The term political structure, used in a general sense, refers to # or groups and their relations to each other, their patterns of interaction within # and to political #, # and the norms present in political systems in such a way that they constitute the political landscape of the political entity. A situation in which conditions and mechanisms of governance and rule are challenged as to their political legitimacy by elements operating from outside of the normal operations of the political system. When challenge occurs from within a political system and the system is able to adapt and change to meet demands on it, it can be said to be stable. Even then, however, the challenge of governance and rule from outside the political system is often associated with events of violence. Political instability will therefore Normally go hand in hand with political violence. In the following, we will use the two terms interchangeably. It is also clear, however, that authoritarian countries can be stable but also relatively free of events of violence if they do not need to resort to violence to uphold their authoritarian rule and dissuade opposition groups from undertaking Violent acts on their part. We will test the hypothesis that autocracy, as such, does not have negative impacts on tourism. The is an combining of various economic factors, such as total productivity, employment, inflation, income, and interest rates. These factors influence the spending design of individuals and firms. Microeconomic environment: It includes the economic environment of a particular firm, industry or household and is primarily concerned with price determination of individual factors. The efficient allocation of resources is the main consideration from a microeconomic perspective. This is necessary to maximize total output. Page-7 Macroeconomic environment: It includes all the in totality. The determination of the employment in the levels of income and the economy is the main consideration here. Interest rates: Interest rates determine the cost and the flow of money of borrowing towards businesses. Exchange rates: This impacts from the profits made by employment levels, exporters and the price of imports. Income and wealth: Income in an economy is measured by GDP, GNP and per capita. In these factors a progressive economic environment shown by high values. Inflation and deflation: Inflationary and deflationary pressures alter the purchasing power of this which has a direct impact on employment rates, consumer spending, tax policies, business investment, and government programs . Productivity: This is the output generated from a given amount of inputs. High levels of productivity support by the economic environment . Page-8 The trends in tourism Political stability and instability: political stability and political relations influences the image of destinations in tourism- generating regions. Example of political strife that cause problematic concerns in the attraction of visitors are warfare, coups, political sticks or protests. Political instability is described as a condition of country where a government has been toppled or is controlled by factions following a coup or where basic functional per-requisites for social order control and maintenance are unstable and periodically disrupted. Economical change: economical change influence tourism in many way. Recent credit crunch is a economical change in the world where country like USA, UK mostly affected. People loose their job, lots of company close there operation for money. People have no extra money for tourism. So this economical change reduce tourist. On the other hand tourism industries reduce their price for overcome the economical change. Customer need and expectation: tourist change their need and expectation every time. They always want something new and high slandered so tourism industry going to follow customer demand. Product life cycle: tourism life cycle have 4 method of life cycle like introductory, growth, maturity and decline. In summer tourism industry do lots of activity for tourist. But when summer is going to end tourist have no interest about the activities. And at the end of summer tourism industry stop to do those activity and ready for winter. This life cycle for summer and winter rolling in tourism industry. Environmental issue: The environmental effects, widely defined, include cultural and social elements, and are probably the biggest problem of tourism. Environmental impact of tourism is most visible in tourist destinations. But effects are also visible at points of origin and transit. For example, the output of aircrafts, ferries, buses, cars equipment and promotional material consumes productive and energy resources and generates waste in origin areas while travel creates pollution in the atmosphere and adversely effects the environment of areas traversed. Globalisation: Globalization has increased the interdependence between countries, economies and people. It does not involve only giant corporations, but also small and medium sized businesses together with family-run firms. This process has led to the creation and operation of global tourism market where destinations, which are expected to compete on equal basis regardless of the country of origin, function interactively. Globalization has opened a whole new world of development opportunities. Education and training : people are more educated. So in tourism staff need trained and educated to understand tourist and communicate with them. Tourist want high standard and quality product and trained and skill customer care in their tour. So tourism industry aware of it and trained their staff about product and services. Tourism is a big industry. Every year number of tourist are increase in average 5%. There are different type of tourist like some of the tourist stay for few week, some of the tourist stay for more then a month or day travel tourist. All of the tourist have same target to travel and fined a new place for enjoy and know something new. Some Page-9 of the tourist come in seasonal. Summer is best time for tourism. Specially in Europe and American tourist like summer tour. But some of the country have some special day where tourist go specially for that day or time. Tourist want always new destination to visit. So tourism industry always fined new destination for tourist. Tourist want everything in same place and make easy their tour. Ecotourism is most poplar tourism for tourist to get everything in same place and enjoy for a short time. Page-10 The role of planning theories, practices and legislation in sustainable tourism and planning strategy In all forms of tourism have crucial importance to the economic, environmental and social well-being of the whole country. The vital role of planning system has to play in terms of facilitating the improvement and development of tourism in appropriate locations. Planners understand the importance of tourism need to ensure by tourism industry and take this fully into account when taking planning decisions and preparing development plans. Also ensure that those involved in the tourism industry understand the principles of national planning policy as they apply to tourism and how these can be applied when preparing individual planning applications. The tourism industry work and the planners together effectively to deliver, facilitate and promote new tourism developments in a sustainable way. Tourism have crucial importance in UK. It provides millions of jobs, generates significant revenues, , supports communities and helps to improve and maintain important national assets. A vital compo nent of tourism is the make-up of the national economy. It contributes Ã £74 billion to GDP1. It is the UKs third largest foreign exchange earner after vehicles and oil, of total exports tourism accounts for over 4%. It contributes an estimated Ã £11.8 billion to the national exchequer in terms of the tax paid by tourists on services and goods.2.2 million people employs by the industry 7.7% of the UK workforce. Tourism jobs are located outside London almost 80% and in 150,000 small and medium-sized enterprises most tourism employment is located. Having established the make into whole link between the environment and tourism, tourism and area development planning models are applicable to environmental conservation and protection planning as well as briefly reviewed. Parallels are drawn between the two planning approaches especially in relation to social special components. It is then provide evidence for something that the future of environment of tourism planning is based on environmental conservation, tourist views, the incorporation of community and the recognition of functional differentiation. It is insist on right that the planning of national areas for tourism should being from an environmental base and work forwards towards the identification of tourism opportunities and include the view of community groups and tourists. Tourism is an important industry in all over the world. Its future development will be secured by tourism developers who engaging with the planning process and that importance those who operating the planning system recognising. The simple idea of ensuring a better quality is the heart of sustainable development which is life for everyone, now and for future generations. To help to make new development more sustainable the planning process provides the opportunity, both through the preparation of development plans and when decisions are taken on specific schemes. The outcomes should be developments which provide accessible development, safe and well-designed, and create new opportunities that will improve the regeneration of communities and the well being of individuals. The result in more efficient use of land and bring forward sufficient land to meet a wide range of expected needs. Provide a supportive framework for successful business and economic growth. Create viable, vibrant an d vital town centres. Reduce the need to travel protect and enhance the natural and safeguard natural resources and built environment . Page-11 Conclusion This report offers practical advice to ensure that planners understand the importance of tourism and take this fully into account when taking planning decisions about tourism and preparing development plans. It also aims to help Tesco in the tourism industry to understand about the principles of national planning policy which they can apply in tourism. This report discuses how planners and the tourism industry should work together to promote, deliver and facilitate new tourism development in a sustainable way. Page-12
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Illegal Downloading Of Movies Media Essay Looking at the story of Jerome Bixbys The Man from Earth movie piracy might not be a threat to the movie industry, but a chance to promote and finance small-budget independent films. The producers of this movie approached internet piracy in a different way, as they embraced internet piracy and thanked illegal downloaders for helping to spread the buzz about the movie (Morozov, 2007). When Eric Wilkinson, the producer of the movie, found out that their movie was posted on a popular piracy blog called Releaselog, he did not do the most common thing, meaning to sue the downloaders, but thanked the Releaselog community for piracy because they were actually helping sales. (Morozov, 2007). Living in a world full of user-generated content, the downloaders gave the movie great ratings on IMDb (The Internet Movie Database) that resulted in ranking increase from 11.235th to 5th and furthermore ranked 1st in the categories independent and science fiction film (Morozov, 2007). Consequently sales increased as the movie got a great promotion. In addition to that, the producer posted a comment on Releaselog asking for voluntary donations for The Man from Earth resulting in additional generated money. Using The Man from Earth as an example, it becomes obvious that movie piracy actually inherits benefits for the movie industry as Jeanne Rose says in her article Movie Piracy: What Seems Evil is Actually Beneficial to the Entertainment Business. By gaining more web attention, people get informed about a movie they under most circumstances would have never heard of. People might use illegal copies of movies to check if the first minutes are interesting for them, to see the movie later in the cinema or on DVD (Rose, 2011). Additionally to that, parents might have a look at the content of the movie to see if it is appropriate for their children to see. Looking at the fact that a trip to the cinema with the whole family is expensive, it is a great thing for parents the check the movie beforehand. (Rose, 2011). One might say that instead of illegal downloading movies to check them for content you could simply watch the movie trailer, but facing the reality, trailers do often represent t he movie in a more positive way then the actual movie is or hide specific scenes to keep the tension in the movie itself. A new study about piracy created by a coalition of academic researches called Social Science Research Counsel shows a different perspective on the situation than industry-sponsored studies usually do. In general piracy studies tell their readers that the movie industry is suffering because of decreasing sales, as many people simply download a movie instead of going to the cinema or buying/renting the DVD. Looking at the fact that these studies are financed from movie companies, it becomes pretty obvious that they will not tell about other reasons than piracy. The new and independent study gives a different perspective on the whole situation: Given the fact that people in general suffer from a bad economy, but also low prices on digital technology and high prices on media goods are the reason for decreased sales in the movie industry (Ernesto, 2011). Visiting the cinema with your family involves spending a lot of money. Imagine living in a low-economy country like South Africa, the pr ice for a DVD in relation to the price in the US or Europe is five to ten times higher (Ernesto, 2011). Even though the movie industry spent huge amounts of money in anti-piracy education, the authors of the study could not find no significant stigma attached to piracy in any of the countries examined (Ernesto, 2011). International movie fans often have a problem to supply themselves with the latest movies or TV shows in a legal way. Being a movie fan in some countries like Germany is very hard, as you have to wait a long time before you can actually see a movie in original tone in a legal way. Using Germany as an example, every movie shown in the cinema is translated and synchronized in the German language. This consequently leads to three different ways to see a movie in the original tone: Going in a different country to see the movie, wait for the DVD release which is often 1 year after the initial release in the United States or download the movie illegal. Facing these three ways it becomes obvious which way is the most common. Looking at legal online stores like iTunes it is illegal to create an US account as a European citizen to purchase your favorite TV show episodes legally. Looking at the situation from a different point of view shows that movie piracy may have benefits for the movie industry. Movie piracy in terms of small budget independent films is able to promote them due to user generated content websites like IMDb, which actually results in more sales. It is also helpful for people to have a better first-look on a movie to decide whether they want to spend their hard earned money on a movie or not. In addition to that people in many countries are excluded from seeing movies when they are originally released which results in unhappy cineastes. Combining these different ideas with the fact that most studies are movie
Monday, August 19, 2019
The possibility of stem cell research exploded with momentum when a certain sheep named Dolly was born. The reason why this was such a breakthrough is because Dolly was the first mammal ever cloned. Although this all began in 1996, the study into stem cell research has been documented since the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, where Joseph Altman and Gopal Das brought forward new evidence of adult neurogenesis ( the ongoing stem cell activity in the brain). The birth of Dolly brought many breakthroughs for the scientific community but it also created an avalanche of concern because of the ethical implications. With all of the reporting on Dolly, the news media only spoke of one type of cloning and that is reproductive cloning. This may be the most popular type of cloning known in society, but there are two others used in the scientific community. The two types are, recombinant DNA cloning (DNA cloning), and therapeutic cloning. The type of cloning used for Dolly was reproductive cloning, which is, a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another animal that is currently in existence or once was. More specifically there is a process known as SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer). In SCNT, the genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell it transferred into a cell where the nucleus has been removed. Once this has taken place the cell that has been reconstructed must then be stimulated with either chemicals or an electric current. This must be done to initiate, or stimulate cell division. Once when cell division is at a suitable stage, the cell is then transferred into the uterus of a female host, where it will continue to develop until birth. The animals that are created with reproductive cloning are no... ... previously, ACT was only able to have one enucleated egg out of eight replicate six times before stopping. Furthermore, when Dolly was created, she was the only success out of 276 attempts. Also is the fact that more than 90% of cloning attempts fail. It would be an obvious statement to say that cloning at this stage is extremely inefficient and still in the works. In my own personal view I am pro for all cloning at this point in time. I say Ã¢â¬Å"at this point in timeÃ¢â¬ , because I do not know where I will stand when the complete cloning of a humans will be possible. For now though, I believe that the research into diseases, and nerve damage should be fully explored. It is said that the American dream is to live in the land of the free. Is it possible that within the next fifty years the American dream could be to live for fifty years past the average life span?
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Insomnia Insomnia Almost everyone experiences insomnia now and then. When one believes he must be in bed by a certain time every night or that he needs a certain number of hours of sleep, it may be the very thing that is preventing him from going to sleep (Munson 21). It is unfortunately true that many people still suffer from poor sleep but do not know that there are numerous programs that can help them. Insomnia, which is due to various causes and includes a vaiety of symptoms, can be reduced or eliminated in a number of ways. Stress is one of the main causes in determining insomnia. It is a fact of every day life and can be defined as any event which causes a significant emotional response. Happy occasions such as getting married, promoted, or going on a vacation can cause stress reaction, not only because because participation in the event is occurring but also in the preparation. More obvious events that occur throughout one's life are the loss of a job, a loved one, or the need for surg ery. In such major life changes, the sources of the emotional response is much more easily identified (Shapiro MacFarlane Hussain 49). There are two types of stress: bad stress or negative stress which destroys your ability to operate at capacity, mentally and physically and good stress which improves your performance (Shapiro 49-50). There are different ways to reduce stress. One should try to find a job he really enjoys. It is not the stress of work that wears one out but the stress of frustration and failure. Two big causes of stress on the job are not knowing what is expected and not having adequate facts or tools. Escaping for a while is another method to help eliminate stress. One can visit a friend, go to a movie, or shop. When he returns, he can attempt to cope with the problem. However, it does not help to keep escaping, the individual should try to cope with problems as promptly as they arise (Hauri 111). Even though it is often difficult to make changes in lifestyle, the effort is worth it. Exchanging stress for a sense of control can lift a heavy weight from one's shoulders. The more control one has over his life during the day, the more likely it is that his night time sleep will become satisfying again (Hauri 113).
Saturday, August 17, 2019
AcknowledgmentsI owe a great many thanks to great many people who helped and supportedme during the project. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my mentorsDr. Hiral Shah, Dr. Ben Baliga, and Prof. Gary Nierengarten for all their support and encouragement at every step throughout my course of study at St. Cloud StateUniversity. First and foremost, my deepest thanks to my advisor, Dr. Hiral Shah, myGuide for this project. I would like to take this opportunity to thank her for herguidance and support throughout the project.I would also like to express my thanks to Dr. Ben Baliga, Prof. GaryNierengarten, and Dr. Balsubramanian Kasi for their precious time in carefullyreviewing my project. I am grateful for their valuable suggestions and comments.Finally, I would like to thank my family and all my friends for constantlyencouraging and supporting me in this endeavor. It is with their help that I have beenable to successfully complete my Master's Program in Engineering Management.IntroductionChapter I: IntroductionEmployee time and attendance is a vital part of the workplace as it allows forbetter workforce management. Time and attendance management facilitates HumanResources to better understand employee attendance, and are necessary forcollecting information for payroll (Time Well Scheduled, n.d.). It is important forcompanies to assemble, categorize, and utilize workforce data, which will allow themto make critical decisions (Data Management Services, Inc., n.d.). In this ever evolving and technologically savvy century, companies are oftenforced to adapt to the needs and requirements of the market. Companies preferportability, flexibility and access to applications they use from anywhere and across all platforms, so that work and management become easier and less complex.Agile methodology is the most widely used project management technique by several organizations for their software development projects. This methodologyworks great in environments where requirements change rapidly throughout theproject scope and has been proven to achieve high project success rate for manyorganization (Battagiri, 2015). There are several software development techniqueswithin the agile methodology. This project demonstrates the use of agile methodologyto create web-based reports for employee Time and Attendance. Problem StatementABC application is currently a desktop applicationwhich facilitates clients to use the software on the local system where theserver is located. This is a drawback8since the client cannot access the application on a remote device. Clients nowrequire flexibility to use the application from across any platform and any devicewithout having to personally be present at the location and the local system wherethe Application is hosted. This can significantly reduce time and effort and increasethe productivity of the workforce.Nature and Significance of the ProblemFor any company, it is necessary to manage its time and attendance and thework schedules of the employees who are the number one capital expense. Improperscheduling and attendance management can lead to a host of issues, includingoverscheduling a shift, costly overtime pay, and even litigation (Data ManagementServices, Inc., n.d.). With the change in dynamics of the work environment in the present day world, employees have the option to work from remote locations. A lot of companiesallow their employees to work from remote locations and to manage their time andattendance, it becomes an arduous task to keep track of the Human resources, whichcan lead to billing issues and corrections which can become costly.Currently, ABC company TC-1 software is only limited to systems that have the database running on theirservers. If employees of any of the clients are requiredto work from a remote location, or if the manager wants to access employeeinformation, payroll, scheduling, they have to be physically present at theirworkstation where this application is hosted. An effective solution which can provideaccess to the application on any device would help the management in accurately9tracking employee work time and also reduce managerial time spent on timekeepingand payroll tasks.Objective of the ProjectTo identify the tools and technologies required for the development of thisapplication and create a web enabled application that interfaces with theserver on the backend and presents a browser-based client interface to theuser in an agile environment.2. Identify the core areas of business and implement them in phases andrelease for production.Project QuestionsAfter successfully accomplishing the project, the following questions wereanswered based on the results obtained from the project:What current drawback s of thedesktop application have been resolved in the Web based application and up to what extent?How was Scrum agile methodology useful in developing this project?How effective would the proposed solution of bringing in a web basedinterface help in resolving the clients' needs?What are the factors of Scrum which were helpful in identifying any threatsin this project?Can new changes and modifications be made during the implementation of the web-application? 11evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement,and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change (Wikipedia, n.d.).c)Scrum methodology:Scrum is a management and control process thatcuts through complexity to focus on building software that meets businessneeds. Management and teams are able to get their hands around therequirements and technologies, never let go, and deliver working software, incrementally and empirically (Scrum.org, n.d.). d) Socket Programming: Sockets provide the communication mech anismbetween two computers using TCP. A client program creates a socket on its end of the communication and attempts to connect that socket to a server. When the connection is made, the server creates a socket objecton its end of the communication (Tutorialspoint.com, n.d.).e) Server:A server is a computer program or a machine capable of accepting requests from clients and responding to them. Their purpose may be to share data or hardware and software resources among clients(Quizlet.com, n.d.). f) Web Application:A Web application (Web app) is an application program that is stored on a remote server and delivered over the Internetthrough a browser interface (Jdsofttech.com, n.d.).g) Desktop Application:A desktop application is a self-contained programthat performs a defined set of tasks under the user control. Desktopapplications run from a local drive and do not require a network or 12connectivity to operate or function properly, though if attached to a networkdesktop application might use the resources of the network (Socmedtech,2014).f) TheSoftware Development Life Cycle (SDLC)is the process of developing or modifying software systems by following softwaredevelopment methodologies. People, process and technology play a vitalrole in success of the software development lifecycle (Battagiri, 2015).g) Pair programmingis an agile software development technique, where twoor more programmers work together on a software development task. One,thedriver, develops the code while the other, theobserver, reviews thecode developed by the driver. The driver and the observer switch roles to achieve better results (Battagiri, 2015).h) Best practicesare the set of rules followed in software developmentwhich can help in developing software which is effective as well as efficientand within the budget. A combination of best practices can be used to bestfit a specific software development environment. The core agile softwareprogramming practices (versionone.com) are the following:Iterative development,Test driven development,Quality testing,Requirement change management,Following standard coding practices,13Software version control.Project management best practices help us successfully initiate,plan, execute, monitor, control and close our projects.Best practicesrepresent the practical application of the concepts, processes, andtools defined in the project (Battagiri, 2015).SummaryThis chapter introduces the problem statement and objective of the project.The nature and significance of the project are discussed. Limitations of this projectimplementation are also addressed. Important terms and keywords are brieflyexplain ed, which are necessary to understand the project. The next chapterdiscusses the framework and research methodologies used to conduct the project in detail.
The aim of this discussion is to explain how an auditor goes about the process of auditing financial statements and presents the five basic stages that the auditor performed during the financial statement audit at Maryward Primary School in Kwekwe for the year ending 31 December 2012. In order to be in a position to fulfil auditing responsibility to report on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s annual financial statements, the auditor followed a series of procedures and activities as required by the auditing profession.The auditor applied the following audit stages: pre-engagement activities, planning, test of controls, substantive procedures, completion and reporting. Puttick et al (2012:102) defines an audit according to Section 1 of APA as Ã¢â¬ ¦the examination of, in accordance with prescribed or applicable auditing standards: a) financial statements with the objective of expressing an opinion as to their fairness or compliance with the identified financial reporting framework and any statutory requirements.Pre-engagement activities There are five pre-engagement activities and considerations. The auditor at this stage performed a new client investigation in order to accept the new appointment as a way of managing conflicts and threats to the auditor. Assessments of any threats to the independence of the auditor was done as an audit engagement should not be accepted where the auditorÃ¢â¬Ës independence is compromised.The other assessment done was the business risk faced in order to avoid the risk of association with a client whose integrity is questionable and particularly where motivation exists to misstate disclosures in financial information or indulge in illegal business and fraudulent reporting practices as it likely to render the auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s business risk unacceptable. The factors considered during the investigation included business reputation of Maryward Primary School. An assessment of the complication of the audit assignment and the estimated time, require d to finish the work was done.An engagement letter was prepared to provide the clearest record of the terms of the engagement. ISA 210 provides the contents of an engagement letter to be sent to the client to help prevent misunderstandings with respect to the engagement. Also, SAS 140 requires that an auditor should agree with the client the terms of the engagement to be undertaken and the terms should be written therefore the letter of engagement will be required whenever a new auditor appointment is accepted.The main constituent features of a typical letter of engagement are: responsibility of directors and auditors, the scope of the audit, other services, fees, Applicable law (Zimbabwe) and agreement of terms. The auditor accepted the engagement for the audit of the financial statements after the conclusion that the reporting framework was acceptable. There was an agreement between the auditor and Maryward Primary School, both parties agreed to meet when changes arise and when th e auditor considers the appropriateness of the matter to do so.In preparation for the audit, the auditor had a tour to Maryward Primary School after the opening meeting with the client. Russell (2012:69) states that Ã¢â¬Å"a tour of the area to be audited is permissible and often times highly desirable. An auditor may tour this area as part of a pre-audit visit to review documents before or after the opening meeting. Ã¢â¬ Travel plans were made and a team of three people was identified and sent to the audit area. PlanningAccording to Puttick et al (2012) the auditor first considers materiality at the planning stage of the audit. The auditor made a judgement of materiality in order to plan the audit in such a way that sufficient evidence is gathered to draw up a conclusion. Planning materiality was based on the end of year financial statements and budgets. According to Millichamp (2002) materiality is material if its omission/misstatement could influence the economic decisions tak en on the basis of the financial statements.The auditor also considered inherent risk as it has a direct impact on the nature, timing and extent of procedures the auditor plans to perform to gather sufficient appropriate audit evidence in response to the assessed risk of material misstatement. Ã¢â¬Å"Inherent riskÃ¢â¬ as per ISA 400 is Ã¢â¬Å" the susceptibility of an account balance or class of transactions to misstatements that could be material, individually or when aggregated with misstatements in other balances or classes, assuming that there are no related internal controlsÃ¢â¬ .The auditor assessed audit risk and inherent risk as it is an essential part of audit planning to help in determining the quality and quantity of evidence gathered and the staff that needed to be assigned to the particular audit. The auditor also obtained an understanding of the business and its environment in order to assess the risk of material misstatement. ISA 310 requires a reasonable underst anding of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s business and industry. The nature of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s business and industry affects the client business risk and the risk of material misstatements in the financial statements.The auditor used the knowledge of these risks to determine the appropriate amount of audit evidence gathered. The auditor through experience is aware of the exposure to problems resulting from the auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to understand comprehensively the nature of transactions in the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s business. The understanding helped the auditor to evaluate the design and implementation of specific controls that could stop or discover and rectify material misstatements at the assertions level. Control risk is the probability that the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s internal control system will fail to notice material misstatements.Audit risk is the risk that the auditor will unknowingly express inappropriate opinion on the financial statements. Inherent and control risk are the businessÃ¢â¬â ¢s risks that exist independently of the audit of financial statements, whereas detection risk is a function of the effectiveness of an audit procedure and its application by the auditor. Puttick et al (2012) quotes the ISA 200 definition of detection risk: Ã¢â¬Å"detection risk is the risk that the auditor will not detect a misstatement that exists in an assertion that could be material, individually or when aggregated with misstatementsÃ¢â¬ .The auditor inquired into the detailed working papers, inspected legal documents and minutes of meetings of the accounting system and its related controls from the management and personnel of the client. A description of the system was recorded and confirmed that the record is an accurate description of the system and a preliminary evaluation of the internal controls was made. Audit planning involves developing an overall strategy for performing the audit.ISA 300 Ã¢â¬Å"audit strategyÃ¢â¬ describes in simple terms how audit is to be carr ied out and the Ã¢â¬Å"audit planÃ¢â¬ details the exact procedures to be carried out to implement the strategy and complete the audit. During planning the auditor established an understanding with the client as to the nature of services to be provided and the responsibilities of each party through the engagement letter. The auditor developed an overall audit strategy, an audit plan and audit program and documented in the working papers each significant business cycle that is, revenue, expenditure, fixed assets, payroll and accounting.Planning continued throughout the entire audit as the auditor accumulated sufficient appropriate audit evidence to support the audit opinion. Performing tests of control and Substantive procedures One of the most important of all the audit stages is the process of testing the internal controls. The aim of tests controls is to obtain evidence that controls on which audit reliance is intended, worked out throughout the period of the financial year unde r audit. The tests of controls indicated that internal controls are operating effectively; the planned audit approach was not to be changed.These processes and procedures were used to ensure that proper approvals are in place before payment is made or transactions entered in the system. The auditor used the primary method of internal control testing to randomly select transactions and checked the source documentation. The random selection from a representative sample revealed that controls are strong, so there was no point for increasing the sample size. A substantive procedure is the actual process of collecting physical evidence of transactions and verifying the value posted to a specific account is supported by actual documents.This aspect of the audit is the most time consuming and is very detailed work. Gray (2008) propounds that at this stage conclusion made by the auditor must be supported by in each case by carefully evaluated evidence that the transactions are completely an d accurately recorded. As auditors cannot rely completely on management assertion of completeness, the search for unrecorded expenses and liabilities was designed to yield audit evidence of liabilities that were not recorded in the reporting period. A material error or fraud in the inventory has a pervasive effect on the financial statement.Auditing standards requires that the auditor should observe the inventory taking and make test control. Physical inventory at year end was counted when the auditor was present to observe and perform the dual direction testing to gather evidence for the existence and completeness assertions. This involved the performance of substantive procedures the nature, timing and extent of which responded appropriately to the assessed risk of misstatement at the assertions level to achieve a level of detection risk that will result in an acceptable level of audit risk relating to assertions within financial statements.Evaluating and concluding The final stag e of auditing process involves evaluating and drawing conclusions on the fair presentation of the financial information and the drafting of the audit report. During this stage the auditor considers the sufficiency of the evidence gathered in support of financial statement assertions. Assertions are the representations of management that are represented in financial statements, for, example, that fixed assets reflected in financial statements exist and are owned by the entity and are fairly valued.ISA 500R: identifies assertions under three categories namely: assertions about classes of transactions and events for the period under audit, assertions about account balances at the period end and assertions about presentation and disclosure. The auditor decided on the fair presentation of assertions and evaluated the differences between amounts included in the financial information and amounts supported by audit evidence.The audit differences represent uncorrected material misstatements in the financial statements. The auditor evaluated the effect of uncorrected material misstatements on the audit and the effect of uncorrected misstatements on the financial statements and tested whether the financial statements as a whole are free of material misstatement. The auditor evaluated the effect of such misstatements on audit opinion. For this purpose, the auditor established a final estimate of materiality.After consideration of all evidence, the auditor concluded that financial statements were not significantly materially misstated and management was not requested to make appropriate adjustments. The completion stage of the audit is the final stage during which the engagement team and partner responsible for the audit perform finishing procedures, evaluate the sufficiency and appropriateness of audit evidence gathered during the audit and findings in respect of significant risks identified, including fraud risk, in order to form the audit opinion on financial statements .During completion procedures, the auditor reviewed the financial statements on an overall basis performing a final analytical review on period end financial information. The reading of supplementary and other relevant information and resolution of the impact of any significant matters arising were considered. Update inquiries on specific aspects for example, fraud, laws, regulations and evaluation of the results of audit procedures for all significant findings. Written representations from management acknowledging its esponsibility for the design and implementation of internal controls to prevent and detect error were obtained. Reporting The last stage of the audit is finalization. This is the creation of a report to management that summarizes all the procedures used to conduct the audit, the result of the various processes, and supporting documentation. Gray (2008) states that Ã¢â¬Å"at this stage the auditor summarizes evidence on systems and other aspects seen to be of interest to management and sends a formal report of comments and recommendationsÃ¢â¬ .After completion of fieldwork and analysis the auditor presented the first draft of findings and recommendations to the client during the exit meeting. Paragraphs 27, 32, and 35b of ISA 700 indicate that the description in the auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s report can refer either to the preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements or the preparation of financial statements that give a true and fair view.True in the sense that the auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s information given was factual and conforms to reality and not false, in addition the information conforms to the required standards and law and that the accounts of Maryward Primary School had been correctly extracted from the books and records. Fair in the sense that information given is free from discrimination and bias and in compliance with the expected standards and rules and that the accounts of the client reflect the substance of the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying transactions.
Friday, August 16, 2019
A denied that the agency merely had a authority to intercept the emails and online communications in united states. Point According to the author, Edward snowmen is a hero. He revealed the information which people deserved to know. He put his career and life at risk. He did not contain any sensitive information which can threaten national securities. He discoursed that senior intelligence officials mislead congress. N. S. A collected the most data of these countries such as Iran, Pakistan, Jordan, India, Egypt.It tracks Americans allies more than terrorists. EVIDENCE Snowmen spent lot of time to go through from surveillance program and the data which collecting around the world. He did not reveal anything that would harm the countries such as identities or military plans. Yes, the evidence is factual which based on something that has actually occurred. When snowmen fled to Hong-Kong and Glenn Greenland who is journalists broke the story how on routinely gather the phone logs of Ameri can, who have no relation to the terrorism.RELIABILITY United Kingdom's Guardian newspaper released secret documents obtained from snowmen an American intelligence body demanding that version release information on a daily basis culled from its American customers activities. The following day, guardian and Washington times released snowman's leaked information on PRISM. Then Author published an article in New Yorker which becomes the source of information and he uploads them to the internet. SCRAP CURRENCY The information was published on jejune, 201 3 in new Yorker RELEVANCEThis information is related to my topic and indented audience is everybody. I have looked at a number of sources. Caddis, j. (201 3, jejune). Why Edward snowmen is a hero. Retrieved from http://WV. Anymore. Com/news/john- caddis/why-Edward-snowmen-is-a-hero AUTHORITY John Caddis is a writer for Ã¢â¬Å"The new YorkerÃ¢â¬ . He has been writing since 1995. He has had a plenty of different jobs such as a financial commenter for the BBC and a business editor. His background may make his article seems more convictive because his job needs him to think in different perspectives.ACCURACY This information released in New Yorker and it is a secondary source as well. He had lot of evidence and references to support his opinion. For example, he wrote snowmen spent months meticulously analyzing every document. The author is trying to say that snowmen prepared for his action, just upload all secret documents he had incautiously. He was being responsible for what he was doing and he knows what he should do. URL reveal about the source is commercial. PURPOSE The purpose of the information is to inform the public. Article Critique Journal of Business systems governance and ethics looks into different aspect of business ethics. It has different papers which are looking into the issue of organization ethics, human resource management, and relationship between the organization and its environment.It looks into the relationship between corporate ethics and personal ethics and how they impact no the business. Ã It also looks intoÃ Ã the aspect of professionalism, ethics and the life long learning among ICT professionals.This journal also looks tat negotiation decision support systems and the link between the operations strategy and human resource management for organizations like non-governmental organizations that work in unstable environment.Literature ReviewThis paper by Helen Maddeen-Hallett (2009) looks into the relationship that exists between corporations and is ethical standings in addition to the ethical standing of employees assessed within a framework of eight main dynamics. It argues that there i s a direct correlation between the ethical standards of a corporation and that of its employees because the highest ethical behavior possible for an organization equals the highest standards of its personnel.It shows that companies which behaves ethically are likely to be more profitable compared to those which are believed to be unethically exploiting resources from the public (Brenner, 1992). These organizations develop anti-trust and non-cooperation and have a cost of two and half trillion dollars per year. These organizations are also likely to damage themselves and also damage the dynamics at which they intersect.This paper identifies the main problem to be how it is possible to find ethical personnel that will result to benefit for all the related dynamics. The paper deeply explores the idea of business being a part of the whole scope of personal ethics.Ã It also looks at indicators of ethically minded personnel to generate important information that can be used when hiring especially middle and top management personnel.In the second paper, Agrwal (2009) looks into negotiation theory in line with game theory, psychology, and negotiation analysis. He argues that there is a trend towards Integration Negotiation Theory that brings together these three theories.The paper combines prospect theory and negotiation theoryÃ Ã in order to incorporate the risk associated in negotiations. The paper discuss development of Negotiation Decision Support System (NDSS) which is a information technology tool used in negation theory.Tatnall and Davey (2009) discusses about aspect of professionalism, ethics, and lifelong learning of ICT professionals. The article looks into how ICT professionals have found it necessary to keep on upgrading their skills in line with emerging technology. The article discuses in details what is ICT professionals and what entails risk reduction.Hassin (2009) discusses the link between operation strategy and strategic human resource manag ement for NGOs which operates in unstable environment. The article discusses how HRM need to be proactive and responsible to change in operation environment.RelevanceThe article is relevant to the area is researching. It contains credible literature and the sources used are all credible. The article also discusses in details the subject it is researching.Critical ReviewI find this article most appropriate for the research.Ã It has looked into the subject of research in greater detail and has used credible literature. However, it has not taken in-depth primary research but solely relies on secondary researchConclusionThis journal has covered the areas of research in greater details. It has carefully selected literature to be used in each subtopic and has given enough attention to each topic. It is relevant to the area of research.RecommendationsIn order to make the research more reliable, it is recommended that the article should use primary research since this is considered to be more accurate and reliable compared to secondary data.