Sunday, February 23, 2020

Which country has the prettiest women Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Which country has the prettiest women - Essay Example Beauty is not only pleasure to the senses; beauty is being nice on the inside and reciprocating the same to the outside. Someone may look physically appealing, but be cold hearted and insecure on the inside. Latin American, Argentina, provides a variety of pretty women by records. These women are generally friendly to the rest of the world and several areas in these regions are safe (Gill et al., 2010). Argentinians are widely spread across the world and their large population makes them accessible to the whole world. The Argentine women are very kind and passionate, always contented and are never looking for a visa to relocate to other countries. Latinas have excelled in various fields ranging from physical beauty to sports and even in the business arena. Some people argue that Latinas from some particular countries are more superior than others (Freeman, 2012). The South American vast population and size and its per capita income make it a suitable country, which boasts of having t he prettiest Latin women. Comparably, the Argentinian women have a fairer and lighter look than most women from other countries like the Guatemala, who have a more indigenous look. The Argentinians are very special and their Latin genes produce a most beautiful, sensual and exciting women. Argentinian women are mostly simple light skinned ladies who just want men who will love her, be devoted to her, a man who she can give back her love and that person who will respect her. She doesn’t want a person who will see several women besides her. Moreover, their families are complete and well built, while the population becomes passionate about numerous issues. In fact, these people are regarded to as the descendants of Mayans, The Aztecs, The Incas, and royal Castilian Spanish, and are known to rejoice and spend their time strengthening their relationship. There are virtues that bind the Latina to a perception of the happiness associated with being a woman and feminine grooming. In fact, this happiness is associated with the desire of nurturing the family and offering the husband a home full of comfort. Therefore, women tend to focus on the needs and things that lead to comfort of their family. Nevertheless, there is no application of western values in South America; in fact, their virtues are not comparable to these values. Therefore, to a Latina woman, men virtues are considered vital, while in North American, male are focused on the comfort and appreciation of a woman, which can be regarded as a value (McCloskey, 2011). In this case, Latin women seem to have a different approach of life. Furthermore, they have prioritized their family, friends and work; in fact, they do not prioritize money and possession. The quality of time spent with their family, children and friends is a great importance to them than anything else in their lives. In addition, Latin women have a fanatical desire to their beauty, whereby they focus on their figures and like feminine dres sing. A typical Argentinian loves her family, her way of life and has good friends and cannot be easily swayed to move into another country to marry someone who will not love her and respect her. These pretty women can only relocate if they get into a meaningful relationship with a caring husband, who also loves her in equal measure. She is a flexible woman who will adapt to the new environment very first; hence, she will not disturb her husband with issues of culture disparity and loneliness emerging from missing her people. Once she is married, her children and

Friday, February 7, 2020

Public Utilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Public Utilities - Essay Example Regulatory commissions must them establish the measure of value for each of these items; these value determinations are made, not found, rendering the overall value relatively unknown. In a competitive market, value is determined by normal market processes such as supply and demand. However, in the case of regulated industries, earnings are dependant upon the rates established by the regulatory commissions-if rates are set low, the value is consequently low, and the same results from rates that are set high. Time variant rates might occur when the public being served fluctuates in their demands of the public utility. For example, residents living in the northern states will go through periods within the year where they will need more heat, creating a demand for electricity and gas power and services. These times, referred to as "peak times," can cause temporary fluctuations in the rates to ensure proper distribution of the appropriate services. Similarly, phone and Internet companies can see the same fluctuating demands at various times in the day as changes in shifts occur at work or school for the public. As people are relieved from their jobs, they might see the need to begin using the phone to contact family members, set appointments, or call other places of business for problems or clarification of services and bills. These time variant rates can often lead to drastic increases or decreases in rates for a short period, and can also add to the public's opinion of how necessary the s ervices might be. For example, several phone companies across the United States offer a standing rate for service; however, the rates on Sundays for long distance service might decrease drastically to provide consumers with an opportunity to contact family members that live out of state. The development of cell phone technology has further dropped the rates for long distance phone service. However, to continually regulate the rates at which the public utility companies are charging the public, regulatory commissions at the public, state, and federal levels are necessary for several reasons. The first step to successfully regulating industries categorized as public utilities is making sure the public within the communities realize the economic advantages of holding regulated monopolies rather than competitive businesses. After the need for regulations have been expressed, the agencies provided these responsibilities must ensure that they are regulating the industries to the best of their abilities; doing so will not only provide necessary services to the public, but will also offer large economic growth to the community. (Phillips 9). To regulate effectively, state and federal regulation commissions must pay close attention to the methods with which they are regulating their respective areas of industry. They must carefully watch the overall expenditures of the industry to ensure that they are within acceptable limits. Performance evaluations should be used to ensure the overall effectiveness of employees working in the public utility industry. Regulating price control by maintaining knowledge over the current markets being served and the overall cost of

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Employment trends affect Gail Hunter and Selsdon Park hotels Essay Example for Free

Employment trends affect Gail Hunter and Selsdon Park hotels Essay Identify and describe external and internal influences that affect human resources planning. In your discussion relate how each factor might affect human resources within your chosen organisation. Selsdon Park Hotel Introduction: The role of a HR manager is to recruit and train new employees into a business. The business that I am looking at is Selsdon Park Hotel. One of the main roles of the hr management is to employ people into the company. This is called induction training. External influences: external influences are things that affect the human resource manager every day but things that are out of the human resource managers control. So all this external influences affect the human resource manager which affects the hr planning Economic Climate: At Selsdon Park Hotel the economic climate will change due to many external factors that may affect the company. This may include government laws coming into play, weather and many other natural factors. Also within many businesses there is a changing money climate will also affect the running of the businesses, the changing money climate would affect the job of Selsdon Park Hotel Resource manager. The changing money climate would affect the HR managers job because of many factors, this include interest rates and training new staff. This could lead to the hotel not having the correct staffing and then the slower running of the business. The stock market could play a part in this. For example in a poor economy many customers would have less disposable income. Selsdon Park Hotel with the lost of many of its customer would be making less profit which would lead to reducing non-essential staff. High and low interest rates would also have an effect on the economic climate which would infl uence the human resource planning. With higher interest rates people would have less disposable income and vice versa. Consumer Trends: Money within any business would depend on the selling of rooms at Selsdon Park Hotel. There are many factors which affect the consumer trends. This includes the amount of leisure time they customers have. Often in many the companies the higher your role in that organisation the less leisure time you have. Many companies do tend to aim a lot of there higher priced holidays at people with larger disable incomes which include senior managers etc. Also with the introduction of the internet the selling of holidays has increased greatly. Instead of people waiting around for hours in travel agencies, it is easier and less hassle to log onto the internet and choose your holidays online. Also you get the best deals on the internet. With the travel agents, they do tend to try and sell you the most expensive holidays but online you can get some great flight deals with Ryan air. This affects the job of the human resource manager because the manager must adjust and adapt to the trends of the consumer. And to adapt to the liking of the consumer the Human Resource manager must make sure that the employees within the business are up to date with new procedures implimented by HR. Employment trends Employment trends affect Gail Hunter and Selsdon Park hotels HR department greatly. Many people go for jobs which are seen as popular at the time. For example many students other the summer holidays like to have holiday rep jobs in Europe or would try to find jobs in hotels doing the summer also. This could affect the staff planning of Hail Hunter because there is a lot of competition in the area for hotel staff. These include Croydon Park hotel, Jurys Inn and the Hilton hotel .Selsdon Park Hotel would have to make sure that there positions at waiters look more desirable through there advertisement and job description through the recruitment department. State of the industry: The state of the travel and tourism industry affects the job of the Human Resource Manager a lot. This is because if a new resort or destination becomes available for customers to visit the HR manager would have to train thier staff to so they can market the destination to the customers. Also with new technologies the HR manager would have a larger budget and then would be able to employ a larger work force or give out incentives to current employees Skill shortages: As in many companies there may be a shortage in the skills needed to do a specific job. This may be because the company may not be able to find a suitable applicant and may have to put someone else with similar or not the desired skills in there place. Taking this action may lead to slow running of the company and stress being put on the staff below and on the level of these staff members. At Selsdon Park you have to get through specific process to become an employee in the business. Gail Hunter who is Selsdon Park hotels Personnel Manager or Human Resource Manager would have to select applicants and short list them down to the top 50. There are many skills needed. For example to become a Selsdon Park Hotel waiter you must have obtained the following skills first: Ideally you would need to have at least two years experience within this role, preferably within the hotel environment or quality restaurants. You must be a team player with good supervisory skills to enable you to assist in the day to day running of the kitchen and to ensure that a first class service is provided to our guests. You will be required to cook to a minimum AA one rosette standard. The hotel has a busy restaurant, extensive banqueting and a successful pub operation . There are a number of requirement that u need to become a member of Selsdon Park hotels staff. These are as follows * Experienced in a customer services environment comfortable in a selling role * Physically fit with a good attendance record in your current position * Hard working, flexible willing to operate on a shift roster * Over 18 years of age * Of normal vision (contact lenses acceptable) * Able to swim well * In possession of a valid EU passport * Fluent in English (both written and spoken) * Ideally possessing knowledge of a second European language * Prepared to work unsociable hours, any day of the year, at any time including weekends * Ready to meet the challenge of dealing with people and demanding situations * Friendly and outgoing with a lively personality As you can see from the skills required Selsdon Park hotel ask a lot from people who want to join there team. As the Human resource manager, you would have to go applications and cvs to try and find the best persons for the job who fit the criteria needed. With many applicants who do not have the skills required but who are accept on the job through a interviewing basis may need extra training, and may have to go on training courses. This would take a slice out of Gail hunters Selsdon Park hotels Human Resource managers budget. Location issue: The locations of Selsdon Park hotel may be a problem for the human resource planning for the hotel. This is because of the accessibility of the skilled staff the company needs to the airports are poor. This is when the human resource manager would have to decide carefully the most skilled staff they need for the hotel and how much out of the budget they would have to get. Also with people who live an extremely long way from the hotel there are living quarters on site which they could use. Competition for employees: When looking for specific employees needed to do a job in Selsdon Park hotel there may be external competition from other companies to employ this person also. For examples if there is a shortage of waiters companies within Croydon may all try to compete for the same person. These hotels include Croydon Park hotel and juries inn. Each of these hotels will advertise them selves in such away and would try to make them seem better to work at then the other one. They would try and sell there business to the potential employee. They would mainly do this through advertisement. Selsdon Park also has a website http://www.principal-hotels.com/hotels.asp?hotelid=2pageid=12 which explains jobs available and the pros and benefits of the job. Weather: Natural factors like the weather can also play a big part in the decisions of a HR manager. If the weathers get very serve and spoils the activates they have planned for the day outside it is up to the HR manager Laws: Also there are many laws which affect the role of the Human resource manager. These include laws and regulations that the manager has to go by. When selecting and employing people into the business the HR manager at Selsdon park hotel has to look go by the following laws. This are: 1 Equal opportunities law 2 Race relation act 3 Sex Discrimination act 4 Equal pay act Each of these acts must be follow by law and if these acts are not followed it could lead to an industrial tribunal. This laws and acts are in place to help the HR manager at Selsdon Park hotel not hinder them. If all this laws are followed correctly the HR manager would select the best person for the position applied regardless of race or sex. Internal Factors: Staff Turn Over: Within an organisation there is a number of staff they employ. In many companies like Selsdon Park Hotel they try to limit the amount of staff turn over. This is because of the costs that the company would be paying out in redundancies to the employed affected if Selsdon Park hotel does not have a valid reason. Staff turn over is a term used by a business to describe the coming and leaving of people within the company. The higher the staff turn over the more the business would suffer because the coming and leaving of people would use up resources needed by the HR manager and would also affect the businesses productivity Responding to consumer trends in terms of products and services: It is also the job of the human resource manager to respond and cater to the consumer trends in the products and services of a company. In Ryan air they would analysis the best selling product and also see why the other flight packages are not selling. They would look at there flight prices and compare them against other short haul flight providers in Europe. Staff Turner Over, Career Moves: Staff turn over is to do with the number of staff leaving and joining a company. It is the job of Selsdon park hotels human resource manager Gail Hunter to make sure they have the lowest amounts of staff turner over. This affects the human resource manager because it is his job to employ people to work in the company who have the right skills needed to perform the job correctly. Any human resource manager with a large amount of staff leaving and coming into the business would have a lot of work on there hands. This would be because they would have to go through job interviews and selection processes. Doing all this would take up a lot of the managers time so it is the human resources mangers job to make sure everyone in the company is well catered too, and are also satisfied with there job. Sickness rates and Absenteeism: Human resource managers have to monitor the sickness and absenteeism in the company to make sure no one is taking to much time off and also whether to give out sickness pay which if a lot of people are off at one time would take a large slice out of the HR budget. Organisational structures, staff roles and responsibilities: It is the job of Gail Hunter to monitor the organisational structures and staff roles in Selsdon Park hotel. The organisational structure is the structure that controls a company and dictates who you report to and who reports to you. A group of people for example cabin crew are control and overseen by a team leader which in turn reports to customer relations manager. This hierarchy is critical in the business so that all the employees know there jobs and rolls. Laws: There are lot of laws which Selsdon Park Hotel must follow to make sure of the smooth running of the business. Because Selsdon Park hotel is also a restaurant and serves food they must follow the food safety Act 1990. This act requires that owners and operators of food businesses take all reasonable precautions and exercise due diligence to ensure that they comply in every respect with current food legislation. Another thing which is tied to the food laws is personnel hygiene which when handling food must be very good with long hair tied back and also hats worn when preparing food. Source: Principal Hotels employee handbook Age of Employees: Also the age is a main factor which companies have to be aware of. They cant employ anyone under the age of 16 by law or the company could be prosecuted. Also many companies try not to employ women of a certain age. This is usually 20-30. Companies should not do this but they do because women at these ages are more likely to have children. So if a company employs a large amount of women at this age they would have to pay out maternity leave if they have children within this time. Training Organisation: It is the responsibility of Gail Hunter the Director of Human Resources at Selsdon Park Hotel to make sure all her staffs are trained well. The organisation must make sure the new employee in training noses about hazards and risks within the workplace. It would be the job of the training person to tell the trainee the hazards and risks within the workplace and also to deal with them. These hazards may include: 1 Torn or ripped carpets 2 Broken furniture 3 Overloaded sockets 4 Loose flexes 5 Trailing cables 6 Overloaded tables/shelving 7 Spillages 8 Broken Glass 9 Rubbish accumulating Most of these hazards seem simple and straight forward but when entering a new workplace the simple list of tasks may seem daunting .Another thing they will teach the new employee would be risk assessments. Risk assessments are where hazards are identified and the risk is identified from this hazards. The new employee is also told where the first aid boxes are so that if an accident does happen they can quickly deal with it. In Selsdon Park Hotel the first add boxes are situated: 1 Housekeeping department 2 Kitchen 3 Reception 4 Room Service 5 HR 6 Greens department 7 The Restaurant 8 Conference and Banqueting Vale try Source: Principal Hotels employee handbook The HR and staff are very important to the business. This is because the HR department manage the staff to make sure they are proforming well and that their needs are catered to. It is also the job of the HR department to make sure that all the employees are up to date with all the new legislation and laws implemented to company. Also HR has to make sure that all the employees are trained well. This is so important because when in the eye of the customer the employee has to know what they are doing when taking down bookings and other such things. The lack of training could lead to the company loseing large amounts of money and also customers who would look for other organisations. If all staff are trained well and know what they are doing the performance of company is going to be better, and also the employees will feel more confident when dealing with customer service and company situations.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

A Psychological Analysis of Alice Walkers Everyday Use Essay -- Every

A Psychological Analysis of Alice Walker's Everyday Use  Ã‚     Ã‚   The human mind is divided into three parts that make up the mind as a whole. These parts are necessary to have a complete mind, just as the members of a family are needed to make up the entire family. The use of components to equal a whole is often exercised in literature. Alice Walker's short story, "Everyday Use," contains the idea of family and of the mind, therefore her work can be evaluated through psychological methods. Through their actions, the characters symbolize the three different parts of the mind: the id, the ego, and the superego. The first type of mind division, the id, "constantly strives to satisfy basic drives...[and] seeks immediate gratification" (Myers 379). In "Everyday Use," Dee's personality is equivalent to the id because she seeks her own personal gain and does not necessarily consider the consequences of her actions. Mama, the narrator in "Everyday Use," says that "Dee wanted nice things. She was determined to stare down any disaster in her efforts" (Walker 92). Dee strives for satisfaction in all she does; she will do everything in her power to get what she desires. The story recounts a situation in which Dee wants some quilts that were stiched by her grandmother, but Mama has already promised these treasures to Dee's sister, Maggie. Mama said that as she "[moved] up to touch the quilts. Dee moved back just enough so that [Mama] couldn't reach the quilts. They already belonged to [Dee]" (Walker 96). Mama explains that Dee is determined to gain possession of the quilts. Although the quilts belong to her mother, Dee has already mentally determined that the quilts belong to her. Dee's personality is comparable to the id branch of the... ...The use of psychological strategies in the Walker's work shows that the characters are joined and create one unit, a family. Works Cited Alice Malsenior Walker: An Annotated Bibliography, 1968-1986. Eds. Louis H. Pratt and Donnell D. Pratt. Connecticut: Meckler Corporation, 1988. Everyday Use: Alice Walker. Ed. Barbara T. Christian. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1994. Myers, David G. Exploring Psychology. Third edition. New York: Worth Publishing, 1996. Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Sixth edition. Eds. X.J. Dennedy and Dana Gioia. New York: Harper Collins, 1995. http://www.dc.peachnet.edu/~shale/humanities/composition/handouts/sample/walker.html http://www.luminarium.org/contemporary/alicew/ http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/altalic_051697.html

Monday, January 13, 2020

Ibsen’s Nora: A Character Analysis

Nora in   A Doll’s House (1888) represents the oppressed woman of all ages. She begins as a conventional housewife dominated by her husband Torvald Helmer. From the role of a docile housewife she gradually emerges as a rebel with a cause. In the last decade of nineteenth century she got worldwide   attention as a   rebellious protagonist who fought against patriarchy. However, she begins as a conventional housewife of nineteenth century and it is the force of circumstances that brings about a sudden awakening in her. She stormed the complacent society, and the play became the subject of debates and discussions. She challenges the male domination   by slamming the door on her puritan husband and leaving his three small children. She refuses to live with a â€Å"stranger† who treats her as a doll wife, imposes all his restrictions on her, but does not support her at the greatest crisis of her life. In   Pillars of   Society Ibsen also created a liberated woman named Lona Hessel, the protagonist who surpassed the male characters and thereby introduced a new dimension to drama. The most striking thing about Nora’s character is her mental growth. In the first and second Acts Nora dutifully plays the roles of a devoted mother preparing for Christmas and a wife who dares to forge her father’s signature to defray the expenses of a trip to Italy for the restoration of her husband’s health. As a member of patriarchal society she accepts the affectionate pet names given by her condescending husband such as   Ã¢â‚¬Å"little squirrel† , â€Å"little skylark† â€Å"little featherbrain† and â€Å"little â€Å"scatterbrain†.(Ibsen.148). Her delight at her husband’s promotion as bank manager with promise of   Ã¢â‚¬Å"heaps and heaps of money†(p.155) is eclipsed by the emergence of a Machiavellian blackmailer named Krogstad. Nora makes a desperate attempt to live happily and peacefully by reinstating Krogstad, who is also implicated in forgery,   but gets involved in more lying. But Helmer   refuses to be seen influenced by his   wife. Helmer’s vanity is hurt by Christian name calling by his classmate which Nora thinks as petty. Throughout the play her innocence is interpreted by Helmer and Mrs.Linde as immaturity. She tells   Nora : â€Å"You are only baby, Nora†(p.158) To   Helmer she at times appears to be   Ã¢â‚¬Å"extremely obstinate† and â€Å"irresponsible†(p.187).Without this trait, her desertion of her husband and children for going on a solo journey of self-education and self-discovery would not be dramatically convincing. At the climax she waits for the miracle to save her from the blackmailer; but it never   Ã‚  happens. A letter from Krogstad shatters their eight-year-old conjugal life. She charges her husband: â€Å"You and Papa have committed a grievous sin against me: It’s your fault that I’ve made nothing of my life.(p.226) But Helmer was too much of a prig to regard her anything more than a spendthrift wife. Her responsible act of borrowing money on her own is so much frowned upon by him that he calls her â€Å"a liar, a hypocrite – even worse a criminal!† (p.221) He considers her unfit to bring up the children, and later   laments that he is â€Å"brought so pitifully low all because of a shiftless woman.† (p.221) Yet after the critical situation is saved   by Mrs.Linde, Nora emphatically rejects the proposal of perpetuating the faà §ade of marital life â€Å"only in the eyes of the world of course.†(p.221) Nora is not simply the protagonist of A Doll’s House, she has become the symbol of women’s protest against the dead laws, conventions and the religions of all society. Her awakening is every woman’s awakening. Her assertion for individual freedom has a universal appeal: â€Å"I must stand on my own feet if I’m to get to know myself and the world outside.† (p.227) Work Cited: Watts, Peter (Trnsl.). Ibsen: Plays. Harmondsworth. Penguin. 1965 All quotations are from this edition. November 19, 2007 â€Å"You’ll see I’m man enough to take it all on myself.†p.190 Nora is affected vy Helmer’s belief that an atmosphere of lie and hypocrisy of a mother vitiates the atmosphere of a home   Nora is pale with fear and says in distress: â€Å"Corrupt my little children – poison my home? That’s not true! It could never, never be true.† P.181 ..Nora is awefully fightened to hide the truth   

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Development of a Campaign for Womens Suffrage Essay...

The Development of a Campaign for Womens Suffrage The movement for womens suffrage became more powerful after 1870. There were a number of different reasons for this. In this essay I will be looking at these different reasons and I also will be writing about how things developed in time. I will start by looking at the situation in 1870. In 1870 the situation for women was bad and women were unfairly treated compared to men. There was inequality at work, inequality before the law, inequality in education and inequality of voting rights. Women were unequally treated by the law. Women couldnt divorce their husbands and if the husband left the wife, he would get the children, the home, the†¦show more content†¦Women worked in low paid jobs such as textile factories or as servants. Laws were passed to improve womens situation at work for example women were banned completely from work in the mines, women were limited to 12 hours work a day, women were limited to 10 hours work a day in textile factories and women were limited to 10 hours work a day in any place employing 50 or more people. Women didnt get to vote, all voting was done by men. Women didnt get a say in politics or get to choose they wanted to vote for. In 1867 most men had the right to vote. There was significant development that occurred graduall y. After 1870 there were a lot of changes, this helped the womens movement for suffrage; because of all these changes women became more confident. Women were allowed to keep their own income and property after they married. In 1878 a woman who was separated from her husband was legally allowed to claim maintenance to support her and her children, if she had to leave him because he was cruel. Finally in 1891 women could no longer be forced to stay home against their own will, they could leave and live elsewhere. Women were being allowed to take degrees at LondonUniversityon the same terms as men. This was a gradual improvement. Women were being treated better and because of the better education women started to receive, there was more chance of getting a good job. Most men still wantedShow MoreRelatedThe Development of a Campaign For Womens Suffrage After 1870512 Words   |  3 PagesThe Development of a Campaign For Womens Suffrage After 1870 Prior to 1857, women had very few rights in the USA. If they were under 21 they were controlled by their fathers, and if they were married, by their husbands. Legally, women were completely under the influence of men. 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The basic principle of the IAW is that the full and equal enjoyment of human rights is due to all women and girls. Founded in 1904 and based in Geneva, it is one of the oldest, largest and most influentialRead MoreWomenS Rights And Economic Progress Are Highly Correlated.1212 Words   |  5 Pagesphilosophical theories which explore the development women’s rights through the progression of society. As a result to patriarchy the â€Å"woman s suffrage movement† was created. It was a successful philosophical movement which raised awareness to address fundamental issues of equity and justice. Patriarchalism is the institutionalized domination by men, with women viewed as culturally or constitutionally inferior. Ancient Greece played a significant role in the development of patriarchal practice. A firstRead More The First World War and Womens Suffrage in Britain Essay1743 Words   |  7 Pagesimportant phase for feminism in Britain. The suffrage movement began as a struggle to achieve equal rights for women in 1872. Women then became active in their quest for political recognition, which they finally obtained in 1928. This investigation assesses the question: To what extent did the First World War lead to the accomplishment of the women’s suffrage movement of Britain in 1928? Two of the sources used in the essay, The Women’s Suffrage: a short history of a great Movement by Millicent

Friday, December 27, 2019

The History Behind the Invention of the Digital Camera

The history of the digital camera dates back to the early 1950s. Digital camera technology is directly related to and evolved from the same technology that recorded  television  images. Digital Photography and the VTR In 1951, the first  video tape recorder  (VTR) captured live images from television cameras by converting the information into electrical impulses (digital) and saving the information onto magnetic tape. Bing Crosby laboratories (the research team funded by Crosby and headed by engineer  John Mullin) created the first early VTR and by 1956, VTR technology was perfected (the VR1000 invented by Charles P. Ginsburg and the Ampex Corporation) and in common use by the television industry. Both television/video cameras and digital cameras use a CCD (Charged Coupled Device) to sense light color and intensity. Digital Photography and Science During the 1960s, NASA converted from using analog to digital signals with their space probes to map the surface of the moon (sending digital images back to earth). Computer technology was also advancing at this time and NASA used computers to enhance the images that the space probes were sending. Digital imaging also had another government use at the time that being spy  satellites. Government use of digital technology helped advance the science of digital imaging, however, the private sector also made significant contributions. Texas Instruments patented a film-less electronic camera in 1972, the first to do so. In August 1981, Sony released the Sony Mavica electronic still camera, the camera which was the first commercial electronic camera. Images were recorded onto a mini disc and then put into a video reader that was connected to a television monitor or color printer. However, the early Mavica cannot be considered a true digital camera even though it started the digital camera revolution. It was a video camera that took video freeze-frames. Kodak Since the mid-1970s, Kodak has invented several solid-state image sensors that converted light to digital pictures for professional and home consumer use. In 1986, Kodak scientists invented the worlds first megapixel sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels that could produce a 5x7-inch digital photo-quality print. In 1987, Kodak released seven products for recording, storing, manipulating, transmitting and printing electronic still video images. In 1990, Kodak developed the Photo CD system and proposed the first worldwide standard for defining color in the digital environment of computers and computer peripherals. In 1991, Kodak released the first professional digital camera system (DCS), aimed at photojournalists. It was a Nikon F-3 camera equipped by Kodak with a 1.3-megapixel sensor. Digital Cameras for Consumers The first digital cameras for the consumer-level market that worked with a home computer via a serial cable were the  Apple QuickTake 100 camera  (February 17 , 1994), the  Kodak DC40  camera (March 28, 1995), the Casio QV-11 (with LCD monitor, late 1995), and Sonys Cyber-Shot Digital Still Camera (1996). However, Kodak entered into an aggressive co-marketing campaign to promote the DC40 and to help introduce the idea of digital photography to the public. Kinkos and Microsoft both collaborated with Kodak to create digital image-making software workstations and kiosks which allowed customers to produce Photo CD Discs and ​photographs and add digital images to documents. IBM collaborated with Kodak in making an internet-based network image exchange. Hewlett-Packard was the first company to make color inkjet printers that complemented the new digital camera images. The marketing worked and today digital cameras are everywhere.